[ntp:questions] Re: Tinker and tos configuration commands....
Terje Mathisen
terje.mathisen at hda.hydro.com
Wed Feb 9 07:53:17 UTC 2005
David L. Mills wrote:
> Terje,
>
> +0 == -0 == 0 == +0.0 == -0.0 == 0.0 in logical comparisons, no matter
> how you represent it, presuming of course that the integer to double
> conversions are done first before comparison. That's all I care about.
OK, no problem. In that case (i.e. never using bitwise operations
directly on the number representation) using sign+magnitude or
ones-complement would also work for integers.
>
> Once upon a time when checksums were expensive we did a terrible thing.
> The ones-complement Internet checksum actually does have two zeros. One
> of course is used to reprent a correct checksum, but other was used to
> disable the checksum calculation itself. Wow, that goes back a long way.
The IP checksum is/was a wonderful algorithm: It is endian-independent,
very quick to calculate even on trivial hardware/software, and history
have shown that it still catches errors committed by things like
Ethernet card FIFOs and bus drivers.
We've discussed this several times over the last 10+ years in
news:comp.arch, and the reality is that for packet reception at least,
it is effectively free, and even sending is free unless you have a
totally copy-free scatter/gather implementation.
> The Univac 1100 series used ones-complement arithmetic and that drove me
> batty.
Been there, done that: I wrote my very first non-trivial program on an
1100. I started by writing a set of arbitrary precision math routines,
and then used them to calculate pi with as many digits as I could manage
within the 60 cpu seconds allotment to first year university students. :-)
This was using Fortran 2, but with a C compiler and unsigned integer
arithmetic, all of our favorite binary properties are guaranteed to work
independently of the actual representation.
>
> Dave
>
> Terje Mathisen wrote:
>
>> David L. Mills wrote:
>>
>>> Brad,
>>>
>>> No, signs of zero disappeared with the Univac 1108 and ones
>>> complement arithmetic and notwithstanding the Internet checksum. Zero
>>> is a legitimate state variable. Twos complement arithmetic is the
>>> sole survivor. Fudge values have nothing to do with it.
>>
>>
>>
>> Actually, that's only true for binary integer operations.
>>
>> FP otoh is always sign+biased_exponent+mantissa these days, since
>> that's required by the relevant IEEE standard (754?).
>>
>> Terje
>>
More information about the questions
mailing list